Research Questions Exploration – Academic Papers – C&T Conferences

Paper Title: Analysing (Social Media) Networks with NodeXL


  • to describe a tool and a set of operations for analysis of networks in general and in particular of the social networks created when employees use an enterprise social network service


Use Network Analysis tools to answer the following questions

  • what patterns are created by the aggregate of interactions in a social media space
  • how are participants connected to one another?
  • what social roles exist?
  • who plays critical roles like connector, answer person, discussion starter or content caretaker?
  • what discussions, pages or files have attracted the most interest from different kinds of particpants?
  • how do network structures correlate with the contributions people make within the social media space?

The Network Analysis Tool they are using is NodeXL – Network Overview, Discovery and Exploration add-in for Excecl 2007 adds network analysis and visualisation features to the spreadsheet. It is intended to make network analysis tasks easier to perform for novices and experts alike.

Using the tool on a sample social media network dataset, they fouond and illustrated structural patterns such as the density of connections within the enterprise, different kinds of contributors and key network metrics.


Smith, M. A., Shneiderman, B., Milic-Frayling, N., Mendes Rodrigues, E., Barash, V., Dunne, C., … Gleave, E. (2009). Analyzing (social media) networks with NodeXL. International Conference on Communities and Technologies, 255–264. Retrieved from


Paper Title: Crowdsourcing in the Cultural Heritage Domain: Opportunities and Challenges


Galleries, Libraries, Archives and Museums (GLAMs) are currently exploring the potential of crowdsourcing (outsourcing specific activities through an open call).

This paper proposes a typology of these activities based on an empirical study (gaining knowledge by means of direct and indirect observation or experience) of a large amount of projects initiated by relevant cultural heritage institutions.

They use the Digital Content Life Cycle (describing – managing – discovering – using & reusing – creating) model to study the relation between the differnet types of crowdsourcing and the core activities of the heritage organisations

They focus on 2 critical challenges that will determine the success of these collaborations between amateurs and professionals:

  • finding sufficient knowledgeable and loyal users
  • maintaining a reasonable level of quality

To study the potential impact of crowdsourcing as one of the models in which participation mainifests itself, it is important for them to

  • classify the different types of crowdsourcing in the GLAM domain
  • see where crowdsourcing can have an impact in the key areas of the digital content life cycle
  • identify the mutual benefits to all stakeholders (opportunities) and identify potential challenges as a starting point for future work

The paper goes on to categorize crowdsourcing and explain the different types of crowdsourcing in relation to different projects initiated by relevant cultural heritage institutions.


Oomen, J., & Aroyo, L. (2011). Crowdsourcing in the Cultural Heritage Domain : Opportunities and Challenges. C&T ’11 Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Communities and Technologies, (July), 138–149.


Paper Title: The Community is where the Rapport is – on sense and structure in the YouTube Community


Do users have a “sense of community” towards YouTube and if such feeling do exist, are they reflected in the explicit ties among members


  • Grounded Theory
    • a detailed analysis of more than 30 videos and their corresponding text comments which discussed 2 topics: (1) users’ feelings about the YouTube community and (2) users’ accounts of interaction within the community
    • a structural analysis on the ties these users display on their YouTube Channels
  • a qualitative analysis of users’ feelings about the community and their interaction patterns
  • a quantitative analysis of the actual YouTube structure as created by their articulated ties


  • the explicit relationships in the friendship and subscription network are almost random
  • the users’ sense of community is not necessarily related to the structure of the YouTube network and may result from subjective affinity towards other users


Rotman, D., Golbeck, J., & Preece, J. (2009). The community is where the rapport is — on sense and structure in the youtube community. Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Communities and Technologies – C&T ’09, 41–49.


Paper Title: Cultural Heritage Communities: Technologies and Challenges

RQ: The role of technology supporting and mediating cultural heritage practices for both professional communities and civic communities

The Workshop:

  • discuss the challenges and future opportunities for technology use and for design and participatory processes in the context of various heritage communities
  • discuss the role of different stakeholders in engaging with heritage in a technology mediated way

Issues they want to explore with the workshop participants:

  • the emergence of COIs and COPs in cultural heritage and how technology mediates this
  • studies of communication and interaction within and among heritage communities
  • practices of participation and cooperation by heritage communities in technology design
  • crowdsourcing, participatory science initiatives for community engagement in cultural heritage
  • technology design and evaluation for heritage communities
  • challenges and opportunities for community involvement in cultural heritage

(*one of the authors Luigina Ciolfi is a reader in communication with research interests that focus on people’s experience of technology – her work is something I would like to research further)


Ciolfi, L., Damala, A., Hornecker, E., Lechner, M., Maye, L., & Petrelli, D. (2015). Cultural heritage communities. Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Communities and Technologies – C&T ’15, 149–152.




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